Nicholas Haile, I, An Immigrant

Male 1625 - 1669  (44 years)


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  • Name Nicholas Haile 
    Suffix I, An Immigrant 
    Born 1625  Kent, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [1, 2
    Gender Male 
    Alt Birth 1628  Kent, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [3, 4
    Alt Birth 1628  Virginia Find all individuals with events at this location  [5
    Alt Death 15 Feb 1667  Lancaster County, Virginia Find all individuals with events at this location  [3
    • in the Tidewater Area...
    Alt Death 15 Feb 1668  Lancaster County, Virginia Find all individuals with events at this location  [5
    Occupation Judge & Planter  [4, 6
    Also Known As "Nicholas Hale", "Nicholas Haile", "Nicholas Haele"  [4
    Died 8 Sep 1669  Lancaster County, Virginia Find all individuals with events at this location  [4, 7
    Buried Y  [5
    • unknown burial site...
    Person ID I26907  The Hennessee Family
    Last Modified 4 Oct 2019 

    Father George Haile, The Immigrant,   b. 16 Jul 1601, King's Walden, Hertfordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 8 Nov 1671, Reedville, Northumberland County, Virginia Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 70 years) 
    Mother Mary Elizabeth Blood,   b. 1602, Bristol, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1672, Lancaster County, Virginia Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 70 years) 
    Married 1626  Bristol, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [8, 9, 10
    Family ID F11237  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family Mary Travers,   b. 1630, Kent, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 11 Aug 1671, Lancaster, Lancaster County, Virginia Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 41 years) 
    Married 1654  [5, 11
    Children 
     1. Richard Haile,   b. 1650
     2. Mary Haile,   b. 1654, York County, Virginia Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 22 Dec 1725, Saint Pauls Parish, Baltimore County, Province of Maryland Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 71 years)
     3. Nicholas Haile, II,   b. 1656, Lancaster County, Virginia Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 29 Mar 1730, Baltimore, Baltimore County, Province of Maryland Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 74 years)
     4. George Heake Haile,   b. 1662, Fink, Virginia Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 12 Jan 1697, Lancaster County, Virginia Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 35 years)
    Last Modified 30 Jun 2020 
    Family ID F9651  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - 1625 - Kent, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsAlt Birth - 1628 - Kent, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsAlt Birth - 1628 - Virginia Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsAlt Death - 15 Feb 1667 - Lancaster County, Virginia Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsAlt Death - 15 Feb 1668 - Lancaster County, Virginia Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsDied - 8 Sep 1669 - Lancaster County, Virginia Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Earth 

  • Notes 
    • Nicholas Haile, Sr.
      Also Known As: "Nicholas Hale", "Nicholas Haile", "Nicholas Haele"
      Birthdate: 1628
      Birthplace: Kent, England
      Death: September 08, 1669 (40-41)
      Lancaster County, Virginia Colony
      Immediate Family:
      Son of George Hale, of Jamestown and Mary Haile
      Husband of Mary Haile
      Father of Capt. George Haile; Richard Haile, of Virginia; Mary Merryman (Haile); Nicholas Haile, Jr.; Joseph Hale and 2 others
      Brother of George Hale, Jr.; Ellin Rogers; John Haile and Thomas Haile
      Occupation: Judge
      Managed by: Private User
      Last Updated: November 4, 2019
      View Complete Profile
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      Immediate Family

      Mary Haile
      wife

      Capt. George Haile
      son

      Richard Haile, of Virginia
      son

      Mary Merryman (Haile)
      daughter

      Nicholas Haile, Jr.
      son

      Joseph Hale
      son

      John Hale
      son

      Francis Hale
      son

      Mary Haile
      mother

      George Hale, of Jamestown
      father

      George Hale, Jr.
      brother

      Ellin Rogers
      sister
      About Nicholas Haile (immigrant)
      Evidence needed to support as son of George Hale, of Jamestown

      Nicholas Haile is supposed to be easy to trace through Lancaster County, VA records. His name appears many times in land transactions and other public records:

      Nicholas is listed in the Colonial Court records of York County, VA, giving his wife's name as Mary.
      In York County and Lancaster Counties, Virginia, on 5 May 1654, he can be found giving power of attorney to Dr. Thomas Roots.
      In 1654, Nicholas "suffered penalty" regarding a gun in the house of Margaret Grimes, who was the wife of Edward Grimes(Colonial Records, Vol 1, page 163)
      Lancaster County, VA Colonial Records, Vol 2, page 120:"Sept 18 1669, upon petition of Nichlas Haile, William Ball Jr....a roadway from the new church to Mr. Fox be...laid out and cleaned by the surveyors for that precinct..." This probably wa the first church to be built in these parts since the people had been going to the "plantation of Mr. David Fox on the hill". The records show it was Nicholas who asked that "a full time preacher be called".
      Nicholas patented 500 acres in June 1657 in Lancaster County, VA.
      He owned land in York County, VA and 18 May 1660 in Lancaster County, VA, Nicholas owned 738 acres on NW branch of the Corotoman River.(Colonial Abstracts of Lancaster CO. VA,"page 219, 13 March 1671-1672, and Cavalier & Pioneers, page 193, Patent Book #6)
      In May 1666 he obtained 234 more acres. Nicholas transported people into Virginia, earning more land.
      On 8 Feb 1668, Lancaster County, VA, George and Nicholas Haile witnessed the will of Margaret George.
      Robert Pollard "went to England and committed his son Robert Pollard to the tuition of Nicholas Haile, Jan 1667/68."(Colonial Court Records, Vol 2, page 73)
      Thos. Gayner of Bristol, England, Merchant, power of attorney to Nicholas Haile to collect debts in Lancaster County, VA, 15 Feb 1668(Colonial Records, Lancaster County, VA, Vol 2, page 72)
      In June 1671, Nicholas had in his possession, land for the orphans of John Arding (John Arden).
      Mary Haile was the executor for the estate of Nicholas, 8 Nov 1671.George, Mary and Nicholas Jr, each received one third of the two thirds of their father's estate, his wife receiving her one third. After the death of Mary her third was split amongst the three children(Colonial Records Lancaster County, VA, Series 2, Vol 2, page 84)
      Mary's death occured between then and 13 March 1671/72, when her son George was ordered to pay Mary Haile King her portion of her parents estates.(Colonial Records, page 219)
      BACKGROUND READING
      http://lettersfromthedustbowl.com/Tidewater.html

      BEGINNINGS IN VIRGINIA AND MARYLAND

      Genealogists turned up certain Hailes early in the Jamestown settlement, because that is what they were looking for. Maude Crowe believed she had found such records, and many other people copied them out of Crowe's book, Descendants from First Families of Maryland and Virginia (1978). Crowe cannot really connect known Haile "descendants" with direct forebears in Jamestown.* Still, Jamestown's wretched experience at the beginning of the seventeenth century may have a place in these pages. The disasters there were closely evaluated by later, more successful English who came up the Virginia rivers as well as the Scots Irish who came down out of Pennsylvania. Besides, the Jamestown survivors intermarried among the later Virginia population.
      Therefore, you might like to skip my account of the James River colony when the name does first appear (1620), and go straight to the family's earliest demonstrable forbears, by clicking here.
      England and America, ca. 1600

      The reign of Elizabeth I (1533-1603) was distinguished by energy, learning, independence of Europe, and flamboyant personalities. Among the latter, Sir Walter Raleigh continued an effort initiated by his brother to establish a colony on Roanoke Island in 1585. So far as is known, the 117 men, women and children Raleigh left there had all perished before the next ship's call, in 1591. But the stretch of land which he named Virginia, after his queen, became part of her estate. In that feudal world, the monarch would enfeof her royal domain to loyal subjects. They exercised her absolute authority abroad as at home.
      Elizabeth was a popular ruler, both among her people and in her own understanding of sovereignty. More typical of absolutist Europe was her successor, James I (1566-1625), one of the strongest advocates of the divine right of kings. This is the James who commissioned the Authorized Bible that bears his name, as does the river where in 1606 he granted the Virginia Company a charter for settlements. Jamestown was established on the James River in the subsequent year. These plantations were nearly as disastrous as had been the Roanoke attempt. Three quarters of all who shipped out of England over the next fourteen years for Virginia became victims of starvation, disease, and Indian depredations--or were lost at sea. Yet conditions in England were such that incentive to emigrate remained strong. Although thousands of emigrants had perished by 1620, hundreds, even thousands more were coming every year. Most of them came as indentured servants, but many were refugees from the severe punishments under English law, or even convicts; the vast majority were malnourished boys and very young men.
      The Virginia Company was predicated on profit. Colonists sent back lumber products, slate, indigo, and eventually ores. They were encouraged to cultivate silk. Europe obtained this cherished material from China, and the greatest hope for Virginia lay in the expectation that China would be found not too far beyond the Appalachians. The most immediate profit came from a plant cultivated by the Indians and immediately beloved throughout Europe, tobacco. King James not only abominated it but wrote his most eloquent tract against its use. Children are still delighted by the account of how a faithful servant of Sir Walter Raleigh, upon glancing at a couch whence smoke was arising, dashed a bucket of water over his lordship.
      Conditions in Jamestown were brutal and primitive, and the Virginia Company unprofitable. Nonetheless, in 1619 eight ships arrived with over 1,200 new settlers, this time including marriageable girls. Among the indentured servants sent in this year were the first Negroes (slavery laws did not yet exist). In 1622, the recently friendly Indians coordinated a surprise attack whereby hundreds of colonists up and down the river were massacred at the same moment. This calamity was followed in 1623 by an epidemic of the plague. The failed Virginia Company was dissolved in 1625. Virginia was made a royal colony. James's successor, Charles I (1609-1649), re-appointed Governor Francis Wyatt, who had come to Virginia in 1620 on the ship Sup[p]ly. Among Wyatt's retinue was a 13-year-old boy named George Hall or George Hale. This is the boy whom Maude Crowe (p. 1) connects with the name George Haile on a document of sale for 300 acres up in Northumberland County, some thirty-odd years later. Crowe does not trace or demonstrate any such coincidence. Actually, Crowe overlooked a "servant" in Jamestown named Thomas Haile. In the 1624 / 25 Jamestown Muster we find not only George Hale / Hall in the James Citty Hundred, age 13 when he arrived on the Supply in 1620, but also Thomas Haile in the West & Sherley Hundred, age 20 when he arrived on the George in 1623.
      Genealogists long had the diligence of Maude Crowe to thank for almost all their Haile records. Popular web sites continue to follow Crowe, often without knowing it. They seldom volunteer Crowe any credit, but sometimes they obliquely give her credit, as when they routinely advance her dubious guess about George as if it were a fact, yet remain silent (as Crowe is) about Thomas.
      One such web site points to a William Haile (1568-1634) in Hertfordshire (Kings Warden), married to a Rose Bond (1573-1648). They are said to be parents of a George (b. abt. 1602) and a Thomas (b. abt. 1605). According to this particular web site, William's son George turns up in America to sire Crowe's American Hailes. The prosperous region of Hertfordshire, just north of London, did indeed have an old and prominent family of Hales. William Hale was among three Protestants burnt at the stake there in 1554. Richard Hale of Kings Warden founded the Richard Hale School in 1617. It survives to this day. There is obviously no way to deny that this Hertfordshire family could indeed be the progenitors of the Virginia Hailes. But the George who Crowe finds came to Jamestown, like the Thomas Haile whom she did not find, clearly belonged to a servant class. To associate them with the illustrious Richard of the Richard Hale School seems difficult. Genealogists sometimes conclude that the name they have found is the very one they were looking for. Perhaps it may be, but can the documented name be linked to specific progeny? If not, then an American genealogist may sire her own English ancestors.
      At the first census, perhaps 25 "plantations," or settlements survived along the James River. They were commonly called hundreds after the old Roman fashion, but contained scarcely more than a score or so men, and maybe no women at all. Beyond mere survival, the task was to produce profitable exports for England. Land for a plantation by royal grant or headright (about 50 acres per head) was available to anyone paying for passage across the Atlantic. Labor, the main cost of a plantation, was commonly obtained by indenture, also in return for passage. Both George Hale / Hall and Thomas Haile were indentured servants. Thomas Haile came over on the Abigail in 1623, which also brought Governor Wyatt's wife (it is also the boat suspected of bringing the plague to Jamestown). A Thomas Haile also appears in 1689 as signatory to a Somerset, Maryland allegiance to the new monarchs William and Mary. By that date, the Jamestown Thomas would have been eighty-five. It is conceivable that there might be a connection between one of these Jamestown fellows from the1620s and the continuous line of Hailes which Crowe does carefully trace after mid-century from Virginia and Maryland down to our Tennessee forebears at Flynn's Lick. Absent evidence for such a connection, however, we cannot even count those two servant boys among Jamestown's lucky survivors, much less as direct progenitors of the family name when it appears some thirty years later, north of the Rappahannock River. The same is true of a Nicholas Haile whom genealogists discover inn Elizabeth City County on the James River.
      By the time of the reign of Charles I at the middle of the 17th century the Virginia settlements had spread up and down the James, and also north toward the Pamunkey. To the south, below the Blackwater River, a tributary of the Chowan, lay swampland. The neck north of the Rappahannock was still prohibited. Some genealogists connect a Nicholas Haile with Elizabeth City County. It is true that a very few Jamestown colonists did indeed advance from indentured servitude, like the explorer and Indian trader Abraham Wood, who rose to wealth and distinction, but I discover no link connecting a later Haile family back to this Nicholas--or to any other Jamestown colonist. Founder of this particular Virginia family was a Nicholas Haile who grew up in England during times so turbulent as to leave a profound influence on young people's thinking. While the original colonists had been struggling to survive in the Virginia settlement named after King James, that monarch himself was absorbed in the dynastic intrigues of Old Europe. Machinations by European royal families constituted the political universe of Nicholas Haile's boyhood. The carryings on of royalty shaped his ideas about what government was, and set the pattern for how he expected rulers to behave. Let us therefore take just a quick look at that political world which Nicholas left behind him. Despite all its complications and despite even its silliness, European history does tell us something about the American settlers who came from there. Patience. It is only five short paragraphs.
      Attitudes toward Government King James's daughter Elizabeth had married the dashing young Palatine Elector, Frederick V, on Valentine's Day of 1613. She was adulated as the Queen of Hearts, and what a handsome couple they were. The young bridegroom was leader of the Protestant Union on the continent. In 1619, the noble estates in Bohemia chose Frederick to be their new king. This disturbed an uneasy balance of power on the European continent.
      Perhaps it was a fundamentally religious balance. At the middle of the previous century, the awakening we associate with Luther and Calvin had culminated in that great schism we now call the Protestant Reformation. Thus in Shakespeare's day Frederick's father-in-law, King James, inherited a Protestant kingdom from Queen Elizabeth. James and his new son-in-law were among the eminent Protestant rulers. The great Catholic power was the Holy Roman Empire.
      Among the hundreds of principalities in the Empire, seven were distinguished as Electors privileged to choose the emperor. Three of the Electorates belonged to Catholic archbishops and one more, Bohemia, was also under Catholic rule. The remaining three, Brandenburg, Saxony, and Frederick's Palatinate had Protestant princes.
      So when young Frederick accepted the Bohemian crown in 1619, that tilted the balance and triggered war. It eventually drew armies from all the Hapsburg lands, including Spain, as well as from the Protestant strongholds in the north, to wreak devastation upon the the middle of Europe. Historians name the catastrophe after its duration: Thirty Years War. By 1622, Imperial forces had driven Elizabeth and Frederick into exile in the Protestant Netherlands. Should her father, King James, now come to their rescue and restore the "Queen of Hearts" to both her thrones?
      The royal favorite, George Villiers, said by some also to be King James's lover, advised a marriage between Elizabeth's brother, young Prince Charles, and the Hapsburg Infanta, Maria Anna of Spain. Villiers thought this blessed union might relieve the predicament Elizabeth and her spouse had got themselves into with the Hapsburg Empire, enhance King James's diplomatic prestige, and bring peace to all Europe. In 1623, Villiers and Prince Charles traveled precipitately to Madrid. But negotiations between the English prince and the Spanish monarchy broke down in hostility and mistrust. When the disappointed bridegroom returned home to England, he tried to give the impression that he had jilted his Spanish bride, not the other way around. Villiers even went ahead to launch an unsuccessful attack by sea against Spain. Still, King James entertained ambitions to play an ecumenical rãole among the European dynasties, and wed Prince Charles to Henrietta Maria, daughter of the Catholic French King--much to the dismay of English Protestants.
      Such was the impression of royalty with which English boys and girls grew up: dazzling celebrities not so unlike the glamorous but lethal campaigners for power in our own century. In any case, such were the sensations that riveted the attention of Englishmen while Jamestown was struggling to survive.
      Legal Assumptions brought by the English to Virginia

      Needless to say, James's dynastic adventurism cost a lot. His heir, Charles I, had to beg Parliament for additional revenues in 1625, but Parliament indignantly refused. Charles resorted to interim "loans" from the greater nobility. When these were not all forthcoming, the king imprisoned some of the recalcitrant nobles. Five of them appealed to the ancient lex terrae, the "law of the land." The noblemen claimed they were entitled to due process, that is to say they thought the king was obliged to show cause for the arrest of any free man. Supporters of the king, on the other hand, argued that any royal command was itself the lex terrae. Their argument won the day, and the parsimonious knights were remanded to prison. This was The famous Case of the Five Knights (1627). Parliament debated as to what course to take now. Should they introduce a bill declaring a free man's right to due process? Should they merely remonstrate against the king's arbitrary arrests? This was the sort of problem which lay in the air breathed by Nicholas's parents. In the year of Nicholas's birth, 1628, Parliament passed the Petition of Right, asserting the constitutionality of habeas corpus. Pressed by his war efforts, Charles had to accept its terms.
      This was the England in which Nicholas grew up. Like most of the English, his family were monarchists, but they also thought that free men had certain rights. For example, Englishmen were accustomed to being taxed only subject to Parliamentary approval. Much as Americans today revere their Constitution and Declaration of Independence, the English remembered their Great Charter, the Magna Carta, which they had compelled a king to sign in 1215. In the example given above (The Five Knights), they argued from Clause 39: it specifies that free men may be deprived of life, liberty or property only in accordance with the "law of the land," whereby (as attested in ancient writs) the magistrate or arresting officer must "have the person," habeas corpus, before a judge to show cause for the arrest. By the time England at last codified this basic Anglo Saxon protection as The Habeas Corpus Act of 1679, it had already long been respected by those who came to Virginia, or even even engrained as a fundamental character trait. At the time Nicholas was establishing himself in the New World, he and people like him were confident that a ruler's power does indeed have legal limits, and can be restrained by legal means. This idea of limited government was still fresh, however, and did not spread in continental Europe.
      Nicholas on the Corotoman (1628-1672)

      In January of the year Nicholas was to attain his majority, he saw his defeated king executed. In September of that year, young Charles II, now a fatherless exile in France, encouraged support among citizens at home by means of royal grants on Virginia's Northern Neck. The idea was to populate that wilderness (See Nell Marilyn Nugent, Cavaliers and Pioneers [1934]). Nicholas was among those who earned land patents from the vast Fairfax grant between the Rappahannock and the Potomac. He received a nominal 50 acres per person in return for transporting apprentices to plant tobacco for him.
      His best known neighbors had brought capital from home. John Carter (1620-69), used wealth from his marriage to continental nobility to purchase large tracts along the Rappahannock. Other royal grantees in the neighborhood were Grey Skipwith (1622-1670) and Edward Dale (1624-1695), father-in-law to Thomas Carter, whose son became the wealthiest grandee in Virginia, Robert "King" Carter (1663-1732). Northern Neck families of later fame were the Jeffersons, the Lees, the Madisons, the Masons, the Munroes, the Randolphs, the Washingtons, etc. These were no doubt all loyalists. They belonged to the Church of England, and were at odds with Cromwellian England. But at the same time, they may well have had ambivalent feelings about the English Crown.
      A ship venturing out of Chesapeake Bay into the Rappahannock encounters its first tributary and harbor in the Corotoman River. Land patents, leases, and sales from the 1650s and 1660s along the Corotoman refer to Nicholas Haile, Planter. A power of attorney dated in 1654 suggests that he must have already been an individual of some standing and means before he was thirty years old. Later documents attest to dealings with England, including travel(s) and credit for transporting more immigrants to Virginia. He acquired several hundred acres near the present Christ's Church. He was empowered to collect debts for a third party in 1666, was entrusted with the tutelage of his partner's son in 1667, was laid in the stocks for "Uncivil language and deportment to several of the Justices" in 1668.
      Nicholas was either lucky in this instance, or redeemed by his status, because in 17th-century Virginia mere pillory was a mild punishment. When Charles Snead and Elizabeth Wig, "havinge been summoned to this Court for comittinge of ye odious sin of fornicacion which they havinge both confessed & acknowledged," Snead was fined five hundred pounds of tobacco and costs, "And ye sd Eliza: Wig to receive twenty stripes upon ye bare shoulders well layen on wth a whip." This particular moral severity should not cause us to compare the settlers along the Rappahannock and Corotoman with their more famous and revered Massachusetts contemporaries. The Puritans are extolled by historians for their sense of purpose and community. Virginians like Nicholas do not come off nearly so well. The way they obtained their land and profited from it, as well as their life style, encouraged "excessive individualism" (T. H. Breen, distinguished professor at Northwestern University), and they are roundly condemned for their independent and allegedly exploitative behavior. While Puritans sat patiently in church, a Virginian might be out at a racetrack, laying a bet on his quarter horse.
      The Family

      The English country folk displaced to America called themselves "adventurers." Historians refer to them as "gentry." As distinguished from Oliver Cromwell's "roundheads" they were the "cavaliers" who sided with Charles. Station and rank were of paramount importance to them, and these were inseparably associated with the land. Their eagerness to acquire land attracted them to the New World. The same motive soon led to their continued migration. Like many other Virginia families, the Hailes never accommodated to the commercial, industrial, urban outlook and way of life. Land, in the feudal economy which they brought with them out of the Old World, was held only at the pleasure of the king, who received allegiance and rent in return. A similar relationship bound servants to their master, who was the king's proxy. Primogeniture and entail, common in feudal England, had helped motivate emigration, and were among the institutions to be abolished in America. Land acquisition kept these early families restlessly moving on.
      Inseparable from land, since time out of mind, has been the labor to work it. The only way for Nicholas to obtain acreage, if not by direct grant from the King, was by guaranteeing the transport of people to Virginia (purchase of land rights did not become possible in Virginia until the very end of the century, under Governor Andros). Perhaps Nicholas was himself a younger son without inheritance, perhaps he was driven out by the Puritan Parliament of Oliver Cromwell. In any case he obtained his patent to acreage along the Corotoman in return for transporting servants to Virginia. For their part, they indentured themselves to him. Bonded servitude continued to supply labor for the family's tobacco production during subsequent generations in Maryland, Virginia, and even in Tennessee as late as the eighteenth century. English servants bonded for a specific term, perhaps four, perhaps seven years, were legally members of their "guardian's" family.
      Early Virginians still understood the concept of family in the ancient sense of Greek oikos = "home," or in the compound oikonomia = "household" (whence English "economy"). Like Roman familia, the oikos meant the entire household including servants. In Virginia, Nicholas was bound by law to responsibility for just such an extended family. We must not think of him with his wife and three children as being about like a family in our own neighborhood. Nicholas and his wife took care of the material welfare of the servants they had brought over, and were of course responsible for their occupational training and Christian education. Their understanding of family was nearer to that of ancient Rome, or to a guild master in medieval Europe.
      A young Englishman signed an indenture as a way of entering into a livlihood. It was a contract, whose name came from its outward appearance. The terms, stipulating the mutual obligations between apprentice and master, were copied twice on one long sheet. The paper was then cut between the copies so as to leave a wavy or jagged, an "indentured" separation. Thus each end, one for the master and one for the apprentice, was demonstrably a part of the same piece of paper. In America as in England, the indenture recognized the master's need for skilled labor, on the one hand, and the servant's need to learn a skill, on the other.
      Growing and harvesting tobacco was a lengthy process comprising several delicate stages. The young man who mastered it could hope for a very profitable future in a colony with plenty of land awaiting him. At the end of his apprenticeship, his master was obliged to help establish him. In the meantime, the master enjoyed the servant's labor and was in turn required to to provide, beyond linens, lodging, and board, instruction in reading, and sometimes ciphering as well. In practice, this meant, in addition to "job training," a thorough grounding in the Bible, and in arithmetic through the "rule of threes."* In short, Nicholas and his wife Mary were in loco parentis to their three children, George, Mary, and Nicholas jr., together with as many servants as they had the energy and means to transport.
      e.g., 4:6=10:15
      Living Conditions

      The colonists by no means left behind them their caste system, which one can observe in England to this day. Position was their most important possession, because it was immutable. Born an aristocrat, one remained so; born a servant, a servant for life. According to the old feudal understanding, one's "condition" bound one also to a distinctive code of behavior. The concept of "honor" had profound implications. This feudal stricture was still understood by the founders (it cost Alexander Hamilton his life), and left traces for several generations in Virginia and other agrarian populations.
      Nicholas, whose acreage shows that he brought at least a dozen bonded servants, surely enjoyed a privileged existence as compared with the "huddled masses" of London or the starving wretches on the James River in the early 1600s--or with the great majority of immigrants in his own generation. This does not mean his life on the Corotoman can have been an easy one. The Indians remained a fearful presence, the massacre of 1622 still remembered by most, and that of 1644 by everyone. Cautious separation of Indians and whites was maintained by strict regulations imposed on both. The wilderness beyond the tidewater was mysterious and deadly. Nicholas surely brought along his armor, which included a helmet and probably chain vest and greaves, and of course sword and knives. He had muskets, from our point of view not very reliable, but a terror to the Indians. His residence was probably crude. Archeological digs suggest that early homes near the James River might not have even been above ground, but by Nicholas's day one may have erected something similar to the Virginia farmhouse below.
      Brick construction was generally preferred, as it had been in the southwest of England in Nicholas's day. Light was provided by candles of tallow or beeswax. Cooking utensils might be hung in the fireplace.

      A family's diet included fruits, fruit pies, and pickled fruit, grains and porridge, game fish and animals. One ate with one's narrow, pointed knife and a ceramic or pewter spoon. Only later did a dinner knife come to table with its broad blade, sometimes even with a broadened tip for transporting food to the mouth. Eventually the fork was borrowed from the kitchen and refined for table use. When cutting meat, the sophisticated fork user did not need to switch hands, but could take his already stabbed morsel directly to the mouth with the left hand, or so it was practiced by Europeans. Americans like Nicholas retained the older habit of switching hands.
      Nicholas probably did not himself do field work, but he did have to teach and supervise the entire tedious process of tobacco production. In the beginning, no attempt was made to clear land. The trees were killed by girding them. Corn could be grown on uncleared acreage without the use of draft animals. Tobacco grew best on newground with plenty of sun. Enormous labor was required to bring down the ancient forests, but once that was accomplished a draft animal might be hitched to a horse hoe for scraping the weeds.
      Preparation of a seedbed in the last winter months, careful tending of the fragile seedlings through the spring, and a series of transplantings as summer began finally permitted topping the plants so as to produce large tobacco leaves. These had to be regularly trimmed. By summer's end the mature tobacco might stand nine feet high. Harvesting the huge leaves, curing, and packing them were similarly arduous and skilled tasks. Despite formidable difficulties, tobacco brought such windfall profits that early colonists overproduced it, to the neglect of other crops. Fertilizing was not yet practiced, nor was crop rotation. As a consequence, tobacco exhausted a plot after a year or so. This was portentous for subsequent generations.

      Tobacco growing provided the first "American Dream" of the good life. It assured the rapid development and advance of American civilization. Tobacco's vast and increasing demands for land laid waste the virgin forests, leached the rich soil, and encouraged slavery. These complaints were made by the growers themselves, Thomas Jefferson for example. Looking back from our day, we may be more impressed by the human lives snuffed out by cancer and other tobacco related diseases than by Jefferson's worries.
      Governance

      By the time Nicholas arrived in Virginia, Parliament had replaced the the royal government, now exiled. But whether under commonwealth or king (after the Restoration in 1660), the British Empire was all the same for Nicholas: a gigantic for profit organization run by appointees striving for place and favor at home. The colonists proudly regarded themselves as loyal, submissive subjects. "The Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina," drawn up in 1669, offer insight into colonial attitude: "for the better settlement of the Government of the said Place, and establishing the interest of the Lords Proprietors with Equality, and without confusion; and that the Government of this Province may be made most agreeable unto the Monarchy under which we live, and of which this province is a part; and that we may avoid erecting a numerous Democracy." The author of this document was presumably the young John Locke, upon whom the founders looked back as champion of human rights.
      Nicholas no doubt believed he enjoyed the same liberties as other Englishmen under the constitution and common law. The king agreed. Charles I, for example, after stating that he truly desired the people's liberty and freedom, went on to say, "But I must tell you that their liberty and freedom consists in having of government; those laws by which their life and their goods may be most their own. It is not for having share in government, Sir, that is nothing pertaining to them." Nicholas felt the same authority over his own servants, whose taxes he paid and for whose welfare he was responsible. As to grievances which Nicholas might himself have, these would be addressed to the Governor, William Berkeley, who was supposed to speak up in England for his vassals in America. Berkeley answered to the ministry in London, who deliberated Royal policy. As time passed, some colonists dared argue that they were entitled to participate in decisions affecting them. This claim was treated as absurd: it went without saying that the ministry and each member of Parliament, including Commons, acted always in the interest of the whole empire and never in favor of any particular constituency, much less in self-interest.
      Nicholas had come to America while Oliver Cromwell was Lord Protector. Although it is unlikely he favored that Puritan regime, the colonies may have fared well enough under it. After the Restoration in 1660, old Governor William Berkeley resumed his post. Although a good administrator under Charles I, he had grown old, cruel, and arbitrary by the time of his reappointment by Charles II. Like the courtier he was, Sir William valued his colony as a source of both personal and royal revenue (the feudal mind drew no bright line between these two). London dictated what was to be shipped from America. The Navigation Acts of 1660 and 1663 restricted shipments to English bottoms and English ports only, whatever the final destination. That actually made trade among American ports illegal. Tobacco, so profitable during the governor's first administration, had now become an article of contention because of overproduction, lack of quality control, competition with the Dutch and other countries, and failure of the British government to address any of these problems.
      II Migration

      The first of our American family, Nicholas, came to Virginia to escape the Puritan Roundheads or to seize an opportunity offered by the exiled monarch, perhaps both. He had a tough time of it on the Corotoman, and died in his early forties. His wife survived him by no more than three years, for his elder son was appointed in 1672 as administrator of her estate. This was George. He expanded his father's holdings along the Corotoman and served as Justice in Lancaster County during the 1680s and '90s. He married the daughter of a Captain John Rogers. They had three children.
      Updated from WikiTree Genealogy via mother Mary Elizabeth Haile by SmartCopy: Jul 24 2015, 17:54:16 UTC

      end of report [4]
    • Nicholas Haile, Sr.
      Also Known As: "Nicholas Hale", "Nicholas Haile", "Nicholas Haele"
      Birthdate: 1628 (41)
      Birthplace: Kent, England
      Death: September 8, 1669 (41)
      Lancaster County, Virginia Colony
      Immediate Family:

      Son of George S. Haile and Mary Haile
      Husband of Mary Haile
      Father of Capt. George Haile; Richard Haile, of Virginia; Mary Merryman (Haile); Nicholas Haile, Jr.; Joseph Hale and 2 others
      Brother of George Hale; Ellin Rogers; John Haile and Thomas Haile
      Occupation: Judge
      Managed by: Private User
      Last Updated: June 15, 2017

      About Nicholas Haile (immigrant)

      Nicholas Haile is supposed to be easy to trace through Lancaster County, VA records. His name appears many times in land transactions and other public records:

      Nicholas is listed in the Colonial Court records of York County, VA, giving his wife's name as Mary.

      In York County and Lancaster Counties, Virginia, on 5 May 1654, he can be found giving power of attorney to Dr. Thomas Roots.

      In 1654, Nicholas "suffered penalty" regarding a gun in the house of Margaret Grimes, who was the wife of Edward Grimes(Colonial Records, Vol 1, page 163)

      Lancaster County, VA Colonial Records, Vol 2, page 120:"Sept 18 1669, upon petition of Nichlas Haile, William Ball Jr....a roadway from the new church to Mr. Fox be...laid out and cleaned by the surveyors for that precinct..." This probably wa the first church to be built in these parts since the people had been going to the "plantation of Mr. David Fox on the hill". The records show it was Nicholas who asked that "a full time preacher be called".

      Nicholas patented 500 acres in June 1657 in Lancaster County, VA.

      He owned land in York County, VA and 18 May 1660 in Lancaster County, VA, Nicholas owned 738 acres on NW branch of the Corotoman River.(Colonial Abstracts of Lancaster CO. VA,"page 219, 13 March 1671-1672, and Cavalier & Pioneers, page 193, Patent Book #6)

      In May 1666 he obtained 234 more acres. Nicholas transported people into Virginia, earning more land.

      On 8 Feb 1668, Lancaster County, VA, George and Nicholas Haile witnessed the will of Margaret George.

      Robert Pollard "went to England and committed his son Robert Pollard to the tuition of Nicholas Haile, Jan 1667/68."(Colonial Court Records, Vol 2, page 73)

      Thos. Gayner of Bristol, England, Merchant, power of attorney to Nicholas Haile to collect debts in Lancaster County, VA, 15 Feb 1668(Colonial Records, Lancaster County, VA, Vol 2, page 72)

      In June 1671, Nicholas had in his possession, land for the orphans of John Arding (John Arden).

      Mary Haile was the executor for the estate of Nicholas, 8 Nov 1671.George, Mary and Nicholas Jr, each received one third of the two thirds of their father's estate, his wife receiving her one third. After the death of Mary her third was split amongst the three children(Colonial Records Lancaster County, VA, Series 2, Vol 2, page 84)

      Mary's death occured between then and 13 March 1671/72, when her son George was ordered to pay Mary Haile King her portion of her parents estates.(Colonial Records, page 219)

      BACKGROUND READING <http://lettersfromthedustbowl.com/Tidewater.html>

      BEGINNINGS IN VIRGINIA AND MARYLAND

      Genealogists turned up certain Hailes early in the Jamestown settlement, because that is what they were looking for. Maude Crowe believed she had found such records, and many other people copied them out of Crowe's book, Descendants from First Families of Maryland and Virginia (1978). Crowe cannot really connect known Haile "descendants" with direct forebears in Jamestown.* Still, Jamestown's wretched experience at the beginning of the seventeenth century may have a place in these pages. The disasters there were closely evaluated by later, more successful English who came up the Virginia rivers as well as the Scots Irish who came down out of Pennsylvania. Besides, the Jamestown survivors intermarried among the later Virginia population.
      Therefore, you might like to skip my account of the James River colony when the name does first appear (1620), and go straight to the family's earliest demonstrable forbears, by clicking here.
      England and America, ca. 1600

      The reign of Elizabeth I (1533-1603) was distinguished by energy, learning, independence of Europe, and flamboyant personalities. Among the latter, Sir Walter Raleigh continued an effort initiated by his brother to establish a colony on Roanoke Island in 1585. So far as is known, the 117 men, women and children Raleigh left there had all perished before the next ship's call, in 1591. But the stretch of land which he named Virginia, after his queen, became part of her estate. In that feudal world, the monarch would enfeof her royal domain to loyal subjects. They exercised her absolute authority abroad as at home.

      Elizabeth was a popular ruler, both among her people and in her own understanding of sovereignty. More typical of absolutist Europe was her successor, James I (1566-1625), one of the strongest advocates of the divine right of kings. This is the James who commissioned the Authorized Bible that bears his name, as does the river where in 1606 he granted the Virginia Company a charter for settlements. Jamestown was established on the James River in the subsequent year. These plantations were nearly as disastrous as had been the Roanoke attempt. Three quarters of all who shipped out of England over the next fourteen years for Virginia became victims of starvation, disease, and Indian depredations--or were lost at sea. Yet conditions in England were such that incentive to emigrate remained strong. Although thousands of emigrants had perished by 1620, hundreds, even thousands more were coming every year. Most of them came as indentured servants, but many were refugees from the severe punishments under English law, or even convicts; the vast majority were malnourished boys and very young men.

      The Virginia Company was predicated on profit. Colonists sent back lumber products, slate, indigo, and eventually ores. They were encouraged to cultivate silk. Europe obtained this cherished material from China, and the greatest hope for Virginia lay in the expectation that China would be found not too far beyond the Appalachians. The most immediate profit came from a plant cultivated by the Indians and immediately beloved throughout Europe, tobacco. King James not only abominated it but wrote his most eloquent tract against its use. Children are still delighted by the account of how a faithful servant of Sir Walter Raleigh, upon glancing at a couch whence smoke was arising, dashed a bucket of water over his lordship.

      Conditions in Jamestown were brutal and primitive, and the Virginia Company unprofitable. Nonetheless, in 1619 eight ships arrived with over 1,200 new settlers, this time including marriageable girls. Among the indentured servants sent in this year were the first Negroes (slavery laws did not yet exist). In 1622, the recently friendly Indians coordinated a surprise attack whereby hundreds of colonists up and down the river were massacred at the same moment. This calamity was followed in 1623 by an epidemic of the plague. The failed Virginia Company was dissolved in 1625. Virginia was made a royal colony.


      James's successor, Charles I (1609-1649), re-appointed Governor Francis Wyatt, who had come to Virginia in 1620 on the ship Sup[p]ly. Among Wyatt's retinue was a 13-year-old boy named George Hall or George Hale. This is the boy whom Maude Crowe (p. 1) connects with the name George Haile on a document of sale for 300 acres up in Northumberland County, some thirty-odd years later. Crowe does not trace or demonstrate any such coincidence. Actually, Crowe overlooked a "servant" in Jamestown named Thomas Haile. In the 1624 / 25 Jamestown Muster we find not only George Hale / Hall in the James Citty Hundred, age 13 when he arrived on the Supply in 1620, but also Thomas Haile in the West & Sherley Hundred, age 20 when he arrived on the George in 1623.

      Genealogists long had the diligence of Maude Crowe to thank for almost all their Haile records. Popular web sites continue to follow Crowe, often without knowing it. They seldom volunteer Crowe any credit, but sometimes they obliquely give her credit, as when they routinely advance her dubious guess about George as if it were a fact, yet remain silent (as Crowe is) about Thomas.

      One such web site points to a William Haile (1568-1634) in Hertfordshire (Kings Warden), married to a Rose Bond (1573-1648). They are said to be parents of a George (b. abt. 1602) and a Thomas (b. abt. 1605). According to this particular web site, William's son George turns up in America to sire Crowe's American Hailes. The prosperous region of Hertfordshire, just north of London, did indeed have an old and prominent family of Hales. William Hale was among three Protestants burnt at the stake there in 1554. Richard Hale of Kings Warden founded the Richard Hale School in 1617. It survives to this day. There is obviously no way to deny that this Hertfordshire family could indeed be the progenitors of the Virginia Hailes. But the George who Crowe finds came to Jamestown, like the Thomas Haile whom she did not find, clearly belonged to a servant class. To associate them with the illustrious Richard of the Richard Hale School seems difficult. Genealogists sometimes conclude that the name they have found is the very one they were looking for. Perhaps it may be, but can the documented name be linked to specific progeny? If not, then an American genealogist may sire her own English ancestors.

      At the first census, perhaps 25 "plantations," or settlements survived along the James River. They were commonly called hundreds after the old Roman fashion, but contained scarcely more than a score or so men, and maybe no women at all. Beyond mere survival, the task was to produce profitable exports for England. Land for a plantation by royal grant or headright (about 50 acres per head) was available to anyone paying for passage across the Atlantic. Labor, the main cost of a plantation, was commonly obtained by indenture, also in return for passage. Both George Hale / Hall and Thomas Haile were indentured servants. Thomas Haile came over on the Abigail in 1623, which also brought Governor Wyatt's wife (it is also the boat suspected of bringing the plague to Jamestown). A Thomas Haile also appears in 1689 as signatory to a Somerset, Maryland allegiance to the new monarchs William and Mary. By that date, the Jamestown Thomas would have been eighty-five. It is conceivable that there might be a connection between one of these Jamestown fellows from the1620s and the continuous line of Hailes which Crowe does carefully trace after mid-century from Virginia and Maryland down to our Tennessee forebears at Flynn's Lick. Absent evidence for such a connection, however, we cannot even count those two servant boys among Jamestown's lucky survivors, much less as direct progenitors of the family name when it appears some thirty years later, north of the Rappahannock River. The same is true of a Nicholas Haile whom genealogists discover inn Elizabeth City County on the James River.

      By the time of the reign of Charles I at the middle of the 17th century the Virginia settlements had spread up and down the James, and also north toward the Pamunkey. To the south, below the Blackwater River, a tributary of the Chowan, lay swampland. The neck north of the Rappahannock was still prohibited. Some genealogists connect a Nicholas Haile with Elizabeth City County. It is true that a very few Jamestown colonists did indeed advance from indentured servitude, like the explorer and Indian trader Abraham Wood, who rose to wealth and distinction, but I discover no link connecting a later Haile family back to this Nicholas--or to any other Jamestown colonist.


      Founder of this particular Virginia family was a Nicholas Haile who grew up in England during times so turbulent as to leave a profound influence on young people's thinking. While the original colonists had been struggling to survive in the Virginia settlement named after King James, that monarch himself was absorbed in the dynastic intrigues of Old Europe. Machinations by European royal families constituted the political universe of Nicholas Haile's boyhood. The carryings on of royalty shaped his ideas about what government was, and set the pattern for how he expected rulers to behave. Let us therefore take just a quick look at that political world which Nicholas left behind him. Despite all its complications and despite even its silliness, European history does tell us something about the American settlers who came from there. Patience. It is only five short paragraphs.
      Attitudes toward Government

      King James's daughter Elizabeth had married the dashing young Palatine Elector, Frederick V, on Valentine's Day of 1613. She was adulated as the Queen of Hearts, and what a handsome couple they were. The young bridegroom was leader of the Protestant Union on the continent. In 1619, the noble estates in Bohemia chose Frederick to be their new king. This disturbed an uneasy balance of power on the European continent.

      Perhaps it was a fundamentally religious balance. At the middle of the previous century, the awakening we associate with Luther and Calvin had culminated in that great schism we now call the Protestant Reformation. Thus in Shakespeare's day Frederick's father-in-law, King James, inherited a Protestant kingdom from Queen Elizabeth. James and his new son-in-law were among the eminent Protestant rulers. The great Catholic power was the Holy Roman Empire.

      Among the hundreds of principalities in the Empire, seven were distinguished as Electors privileged to choose the emperor. Three of the Electorates belonged to Catholic archbishops and one more, Bohemia, was also under Catholic rule. The remaining three, Brandenburg, Saxony, and Frederick's Palatinate had Protestant princes.

      So when young Frederick accepted the Bohemian crown in 1619, that tilted the balance and triggered war. It eventually drew armies from all the Hapsburg lands, including Spain, as well as from the Protestant strongholds in the north, to wreak devastation upon the the middle of Europe. Historians name the catastrophe after its duration: Thirty Years War. By 1622, Imperial forces had driven Elizabeth and Frederick into exile in the Protestant Netherlands. Should her father, King James, now come to their rescue and restore the "Queen of Hearts" to both her thrones?

      The royal favorite, George Villiers, said by some also to be King James's lover, advised a marriage between Elizabeth's brother, young Prince Charles, and the Hapsburg Infanta, Maria Anna of Spain. Villiers thought this blessed union might relieve the predicament Elizabeth and her spouse had got themselves into with the Hapsburg Empire, enhance King James's diplomatic prestige, and bring peace to all Europe. In 1623, Villiers and Prince Charles traveled precipitately to Madrid. But negotiations between the English prince and the Spanish monarchy broke down in hostility and mistrust. When the disappointed bridegroom returned home to England, he tried to give the impression that he had jilted his Spanish bride, not the other way around. Villiers even went ahead to launch an unsuccessful attack by sea against Spain. Still, King James entertained ambitions to play an ecumenical rãole among the European dynasties, and wed Prince Charles to Henrietta Maria, daughter of the Catholic French King--much to the dismay of English Protestants.

      Such was the impression of royalty with which English boys and girls grew up: dazzling celebrities not so unlike the glamorous but lethal campaigners for power in our own century. In any case, such were the sensations that riveted the attention of Englishmen while Jamestown was struggling to survive.

      Legal Assumptions brought by the English to Virginia

      Needless to say, James's dynastic adventurism cost a lot. His heir, Charles I, had to beg Parliament for additional revenues in 1625, but Parliament indignantly refused. Charles resorted to interim "loans" from the greater nobility. When these were not all forthcoming, the king imprisoned some of the recalcitrant nobles. Five of them appealed to the ancient lex terrae, the "law of the land." The noblemen claimed they were entitled to due process, that is to say they thought the king was obliged to show cause for the arrest of any free man. Supporters of the king, on the other hand, argued that any royal command was itself the lex terrae. Their argument won the day, and the parsimonious knights were remanded to prison. This was The famous Case of the Five Knights (1627). Parliament debated as to what course to take now. Should they introduce a bill declaring a free man's right to due process? Should they merely remonstrate against the king's arbitrary arrests? This was the sort of problem which lay in the air breathed by Nicholas's parents. In the year of Nicholas's birth, 1628, Parliament passed the Petition of Right, asserting the constitutionality of habeas corpus. Pressed by his war efforts, Charles had to accept its terms.

      This was the England in which Nicholas grew up. Like most of the English, his family were monarchists, but they also thought that free men had certain rights. For example, Englishmen were accustomed to being taxed only subject to Parliamentary approval. Much as Americans today revere their Constitution and Declaration of Independence, the English remembered their Great Charter, the Magna Carta, which they had compelled a king to sign in 1215. In the example given above (The Five Knights), they argued from Clause 39: it specifies that free men may be deprived of life, liberty or property only in accordance with the "law of the land," whereby (as attested in ancient writs) the magistrate or arresting officer must "have the person," habeas corpus, before a judge to show cause for the arrest. By the time England at last codified this basic Anglo Saxon protection as The Habeas Corpus Act of 1679, it had already long been respected by those who came to Virginia, or even even engrained as a fundamental character trait. At the time Nicholas was establishing himself in the New World, he and people like him were confident that a ruler's power does indeed have legal limits, and can be restrained by legal means. This idea of limited government was still fresh, however, and did not spread in continental Europe.
      Nicholas on the Corotoman (1628-1672)

      In January of the year Nicholas was to attain his majority, he saw his defeated king executed. In September of that year, young Charles II, now a fatherless exile in France, encouraged support among citizens at home by means of royal grants on Virginia's Northern Neck. The idea was to populate that wilderness (See Nell Marilyn Nugent, Cavaliers and Pioneers [1934]). Nicholas was among those who earned land patents from the vast Fairfax grant between the Rappahannock and the Potomac. He received a nominal 50 acres per person in return for transporting apprentices to plant tobacco for him.

      His best known neighbors had brought capital from home. John Carter (1620-69), used wealth from his marriage to continental nobility to purchase large tracts along the Rappahannock. Other royal grantees in the neighborhood were Grey Skipwith (1622-1670) and Edward Dale (1624-1695), father-in-law to Thomas Carter, whose son became the wealthiest grandee in Virginia, Robert "King" Carter (1663-1732). Northern Neck families of later fame were the Jeffersons, the Lees, the Madisons, the Masons, the Munroes, the Randolphs, the Washingtons, etc. These were no doubt all loyalists. They belonged to the Church of England, and were at odds with Cromwellian England. But at the same time, they may well have had ambivalent feelings about the English Crown.

      A ship venturing out of Chesapeake Bay into the Rappahannock encounters its first tributary and harbor in the Corotoman River. Land patents, leases, and sales from the 1650s and 1660s along the Corotoman refer to Nicholas Haile, Planter. A power of attorney dated in 1654 suggests that he must have already been an individual of some standing and means before he was thirty years old. Later documents attest to dealings with England, including travel(s) and credit for transporting more immigrants to Virginia. He acquired several hundred acres near the present Christ's Church. He was empowered to collect debts for a third party in 1666, was entrusted with the tutelage of his partner's son in 1667, was laid in the stocks for "Uncivil language and deportment to several of the Justices" in 1668.

      Nicholas was either lucky in this instance, or redeemed by his status, because in 17th-century Virginia mere pillory was a mild punishment. When Charles Snead and Elizabeth Wig, "havinge been summoned to this Court for comittinge of ye odious sin of fornicacion which they havinge both confessed & acknowledged," Snead was fined five hundred pounds of tobacco and costs, "And ye sd Eliza: Wig to receive twenty stripes upon ye bare shoulders well layen on wth a whip." This particular moral severity should not cause us to compare the settlers along the Rappahannock and Corotoman with their more famous and revered Massachusetts contemporaries. The Puritans are extolled by historians for their sense of purpose and community. Virginians like Nicholas do not come off nearly so well. The way they obtained their land and profited from it, as well as their life style, encouraged "excessive individualism" (T. H. Breen, distinguished professor at Northwestern University), and they are roundly condemned for their independent and allegedly exploitative behavior. While Puritans sat patiently in church, a Virginian might be out at a racetrack, laying a bet on his quarter horse.

      The Family

      The English country folk displaced to America called themselves "adventurers." Historians refer to them as "gentry." As distinguished from Oliver Cromwell's "roundheads" they were the "cavaliers" who sided with Charles. Station and rank were of paramount importance to them, and these were inseparably associated with the land. Their eagerness to acquire land attracted them to the New World. The same motive soon led to their continued migration. Like many other Virginia families, the Hailes never accommodated to the commercial, industrial, urban outlook and way of life. Land, in the feudal economy which they brought with them out of the Old World, was held only at the pleasure of the king, who received allegiance and rent in return. A similar relationship bound servants to their master, who was the king's proxy. Primogeniture and entail, common in feudal England, had helped motivate emigration, and were among the institutions to be abolished in America. Land acquisition kept these early families restlessly moving on.

      Inseparable from land, since time out of mind, has been the labor to work it. The only way for Nicholas to obtain acreage, if not by direct grant from the King, was by guaranteeing the transport of people to Virginia (purchase of land rights did not become possible in Virginia until the very end of the century, under Governor Andros). Perhaps Nicholas was himself a younger son without inheritance, perhaps he was driven out by the Puritan Parliament of Oliver Cromwell. In any case he obtained his patent to acreage along the Corotoman in return for transporting servants to Virginia. For their part, they indentured themselves to him. Bonded servitude continued to supply labor for the family's tobacco production during subsequent generations in Maryland, Virginia, and even in Tennessee as late as the eighteenth century. English servants bonded for a specific term, perhaps four, perhaps seven years, were legally members of their "guardian's" family.

      Early Virginians still understood the concept of family in the ancient sense of Greek oikos = "home," or in the compound oikonomia = "household" (whence English "economy"). Like Roman familia, the oikos meant the entire household including servants. In Virginia, Nicholas was bound by law to responsibility for just such an extended family. We must not think of him with his wife and three children as being about like a family in our own neighborhood. Nicholas and his wife took care of the material welfare of the servants they had brought over, and were of course responsible for their occupational training and Christian education. Their understanding of family was nearer to that of ancient Rome, or to a guild master in medieval Europe.

      A young Englishman signed an indenture as a way of entering into a livlihood. It was a contract, whose name came from its outward appearance. The terms, stipulating the mutual obligations between apprentice and master, were copied twice on one long sheet. The paper was then cut between the copies so as to leave a wavy or jagged, an "indentured" separation. Thus each end, one for the master and one for the apprentice, was demonstrably a part of the same piece of paper. In America as in England, the indenture recognized the master's need for skilled labor, on the one hand, and the servant's need to learn a skill, on the other.

      Growing and harvesting tobacco was a lengthy process comprising several delicate stages. The young man who mastered it could hope for a very profitable future in a colony with plenty of land awaiting him. At the end of his apprenticeship, his master was obliged to help establish him. In the meantime, the master enjoyed the servant's labor and was in turn required to to provide, beyond linens, lodging, and board, instruction in reading, and sometimes ciphering as well. In practice, this meant, in addition to "job training," a thorough grounding in the Bible, and in arithmetic through the "rule of threes."* In short, Nicholas and his wife Mary were in loco parentis to their three children, George, Mary, and Nicholas jr., together with as many servants as they had the energy and means to transport.
      e.g., 4:6=10:15

      Living Conditions


      The colonists by no means left behind them their caste system, which one can observe in England to this day. Position was their most important possession, because it was immutable. Born an aristocrat, one remained so; born a servant, a servant for life. According to the old feudal understanding, one's "condition" bound one also to a distinctive code of behavior. The concept of "honor" had profound implications. This feudal stricture was still understood by the founders (it cost Alexander Hamilton his life), and left traces for several generations in Virginia and other agrarian populations.

      Nicholas, whose acreage shows that he brought at least a dozen bonded servants, surely enjoyed a privileged existence as compared with the "huddled masses" of London or the starving wretches on the James River in the early 1600s--or with the great majority of immigrants in his own generation. This does not mean his life on the Corotoman can have been an easy one. The Indians remained a fearful presence, the massacre of 1622 still remembered by most, and that of 1644 by everyone. Cautious separation of Indians and whites was maintained by strict regulations imposed on both. The wilderness beyond the tidewater was mysterious and deadly. Nicholas surely brought along his armor, which included a helmet and probably chain vest and greaves, and of course sword and knives. He had muskets, from our point of view not very reliable, but a terror to the Indians. His residence was probably crude. Archeological digs suggest that early homes near the James River might not have even been above ground, but by Nicholas's day one may have erected something similar to the Virginia farmhouse below.
      Brick construction was generally preferred, as it had been in the southwest of England in Nicholas's day. Light was provided by candles of tallow or beeswax. Cooking utensils might be hung in the fireplace.

      A family's diet included fruits, fruit pies, and pickled fruit, grains and porridge, game fish and animals. One ate with one's narrow, pointed knife and a ceramic or pewter spoon. Only later did a dinner knife come to table with its broad blade, sometimes even with a broadened tip for transporting food to the mouth. Eventually the fork was borrowed from the kitchen and refined for table use. When cutting meat, the sophisticated fork user did not need to switch hands, but could take his already stabbed morsel directly to the mouth with the left hand, or so it was practiced by Europeans. Americans like Nicholas retained the older habit of switching hands.

      Nicholas probably did not himself do field work, but he did have to teach and supervise the entire tedious process of tobacco production. In the beginning, no attempt was made to clear land. The trees were killed by girding them. Corn could be grown on uncleared acreage without the use of draft animals. Tobacco grew best on newground with plenty of sun. Enormous labor was required to bring down the ancient forests, but once that was accomplished a draft animal might be hitched to a horse hoe for scraping the weeds.
      Preparation of a seedbed in the last winter months, careful tending of the fragile seedlings through the spring, and a series of transplantings as summer began finally permitted topping the plants so as to produce large tobacco leaves. These had to be regularly trimmed. By summer's end the mature tobacco might stand nine feet high. Harvesting the huge leaves, curing, and packing them were similarly arduous and skilled tasks. Despite formidable difficulties, tobacco brought such windfall profits that early colonists overproduced it, to the neglect of other crops. Fertilizing was not yet practiced, nor was crop rotation. As a consequence, tobacco exhausted a plot after a year or so. This was portentous for subsequent generations.

      Tobacco growing provided the first "American Dream" of the good life. It assured the rapid development and advance of American civilization. Tobacco's vast and increasing demands for land laid waste the virgin forests, leached the rich soil, and encouraged slavery. These complaints were made by the growers themselves, Thomas Jefferson for example. Looking back from our day, we may be more impressed by the human lives snuffed out by cancer and other tobacco related diseases than by Jefferson's worries.

      Governance

      By the time Nicholas arrived in Virginia, Parliament had replaced the the royal government, now exiled. But whether under commonwealth or king (after the Restoration in 1660), the British Empire was all the same for Nicholas: a gigantic for profit organization run by appointees striving for place and favor at home. The colonists proudly regarded themselves as loyal, submissive subjects. "The Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina," drawn up in 1669, offer insight into colonial attitude: "for the better settlement of the Government of the said Place, and establishing the interest of the Lords Proprietors with Equality, and without confusion; and that the Government of this Province may be made most agreeable unto the Monarchy under which we live, and of which this province is a part; and that we may avoid erecting a numerous Democracy." The author of this document was presumably the young John Locke, upon whom the founders looked back as champion of human rights.

      Nicholas no doubt believed he enjoyed the same liberties as other Englishmen under the constitution and common law. The king agreed. Charles I, for example, after stating that he truly desired the people's liberty and freedom, went on to say, "But I must tell you that their liberty and freedom consists in having of government; those laws by which their life and their goods may be most their own. It is not for having share in government, Sir, that is nothing pertaining to them." Nicholas felt the same authority over his own servants, whose taxes he paid and for whose welfare he was responsible. As to grievances which Nicholas might himself have, these would be addressed to the Governor, William Berkeley, who was supposed to speak up in England for his vassals in America. Berkeley answered to the ministry in London, who deliberated Royal policy. As time passed, some colonists dared argue that they were entitled to participate in decisions affecting them. This claim was treated as absurd: it went without saying that the ministry and each member of Parliament, including Commons, acted always in the interest of the whole empire and never in favor of any particular constituency, much less in self-interest.

      Nicholas had come to America while Oliver Cromwell was Lord Protector. Although it is unlikely he favored that Puritan regime, the colonies may have fared well enough under it. After the Restoration in 1660, old Governor William Berkeley resumed his post. Although a good administrator under Charles I, he had grown old, cruel, and arbitrary by the time of his reappointment by Charles II. Like the courtier he was, Sir William valued his colony as a source of both personal and royal revenue (the feudal mind drew no bright line between these two). London dictated what was to be shipped from America. The Navigation Acts of 1660 and 1663 restricted shipments to English bottoms and English ports only, whatever the final destination. That actually made trade among American ports illegal. Tobacco, so profitable during the governor's first administration, had now become an article of contention because of overproduction, lack of quality control, competition with the Dutch and other countries, and failure of the British government to address any of these problems.

      II Migration

      The first of our American family, Nicholas, came to Virginia to escape the Puritan Roundheads or to seize an opportunity offered by the exiled monarch, perhaps both. He had a tough time of it on the Corotoman, and died in his early forties. His wife survived him by no more than three years, for his elder son was appointed in 1672 as administrator of her estate. This was George. He expanded his father's holdings along the Corotoman and served as Justice in Lancaster County during the 1680s and '90s. He married the daughter of a Captain John Rogers. They had three children.


      Updated from WikiTree Genealogy via mother Mary Elizabeth Haile by SmartCopy: Jul 24 2015, 17:54:16 UTC

      end of biography [4]

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